Water privatization thesis

Indeed, water still remains the source of life although the world has changed dramatically. Water is the most important natural resource on our planet Earth. It is the basis of life that all organisms depend on for survival.

Water is present on Earth as fresh or saltwater. About Humans can only consume freshwater; however, only about 0. Although freshwater is a renewable resource, the world's supply of fresh water is decreasing. Water demand already exceeds supply in many parts of the world, and as world population continues to rise conditions are expected to worsen Chenoweth, According to the State of the World Report by UNFPAthe global population has tripled over the past 70 years and the water use has grown six-fold.

This is the result of industrial development and increased use of irrigation. Faced by these facts, it is clear that the un-substitutable water is the resource that will define the limits of sustainable development in the near future UNFPA, This highlights the need to manage freshwater resources and rationalize their use.

To this end, many international initiatives and agreements have been developed; most important of which are:. The main contributors to the increased water withdrawal are unsustainable water demand, lack of proper management leakage, waste etc.

They have travelled to areas rich with water and settled in such areas. This change from nomad to settler was accompanied by a shift in the means of living as well as in the interaction between people and resources Goma et al.

Governments and societies have, long since, treated water mostly as a free or a social good. Furthermore, the forces that penetrate the society, such as globalization, urbanization and population growth, combined with the introduction of technological changes and accessibility to information made existing water management structures outdated Figueres et al.

Water scarcity occurs when the demand for water exceeds the available amount of water. Water scarcity also occurs when the poor quality of water limits its usability.

Water privatisation: a worldwide failure?

Therefore, water quantity is not the only benchmark indicator for scarcity, water quality also has a bearing UNDP Usually, scarcity is assessed by analysis of the population-water equation.

The norm, as such, is to consider 1, cubic metres per person as the national threshold for meeting water requirements. Based on this threshold, the figure below represents water scarcity states in different regions around the world. Growing demand for water is the first of the components of a water scarcity situation.

Population growth increases demand for water for the production of food, but also fordomestic and for industrial uses. This adds social and economical parameters to water related problems including scarcity.Privatization Appropriateness of the Presentations in Evaluating.

Privatization Appropriateness of the Presentations In evaluating the two research papers presented for this assignment, it will involve determining the appropriateness of the papers, the literature review presented in the papers, the methods employed, the quality of the data analysis, along with readability, relevance and the contribution each paper makes towards the question at hand: is privatization the best solution in Nigeria? To wit, akre is opposed to privatization of publicly owned enterprises.

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He uses…… [Read More]. Privatization of Prison. Privatization of Prison Privatization Privatization of the prisons stands out as an objective by the government to change or extend its obligation in running prisons. Change in this operation calls for state policy changes where the government contracts private operators in elements relating to construction, design and security of prisons. In some states, some private companies undertake full ownership of the prisons inviting the government to evaluate the facility and offer to contract them to provide services in prison administration for a fee.

The private prison operators set up the facility as a factor to fetch economic gain through the provision of the services Brakel, To be considered as a private company providing services in prison management, willing operators compete for the contract through submission of tender.

The states evaluate the facilities and capability of the willing companies and offer contracts specifying the terms of service and the length…… [Read More]. Privatization Has Been an Issue if Much. Privatization has been an issue if much debate during this presidential election. In particular, privatization as it relates to social security reform has been the primary focus.

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The purpose of this discussion is the provide arguments for privatization and against privatization. The discussion will also cite situations and examples both in America and abroad as to why or why not privatization is a good idea, and why it may or may not work. Let us begin our discussion by defining privatization. Privatization is defined as the altering of a public enterprise into a private enterprise Scott.

According to a book entitled Privatization and Economic Performance, Privatization is designed to "improve industry performance by increasing the role of market forces. In many cases, privatization comes about after there is a problem in maintaining the financing of the public enterprise.

Such is the case with the issue of social…… [Read More]. Privatization of Healthcare Services in China Since. Privatization of Healthcare Services in China Since s Empirical Analysis related to Primary level Changes Insurance Financing Policy Data Presentation, Observations and Analysis Obstacles faced by Private Clinics Future Outlook China opened its door to the outside world and introduced economic reforms in with a shift from a controlled central economy to an open and market oriented economy.

This project takes on the task of investigating the Chinese privatization of healthcare sector with special emphasis on private clinics and the role they play in overall healthcare industry. Driven by need of times this rapid evolution of private sector influenced the whole industry and gave birth to many problems occurring at both rural and urban areas.Introduction The access, distribution and maintenance of clean water is a challenging task for developing countries.

Efforts to supply clean water have in the past fallen short, hence prompting the World Bank to advocate in privatization. From a theoretical point of view, privatization has the advantages of corporate efficiency with management that is responsible on behalf of the national government. In the Philippines, water privatization has increased the people who can access to water from 58 to 84 percent, but the prices of water have increased five times.

Based on more than half of the human population, they will be living in the urban areas a year from now.

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Bythis population is expected to increase to almost five billion. One percent of the water on earth I suitable for human consumption, and this water are not freely accessible to human since it is frozen in the ice caps. The distribution and supply of water is therefore, key to a development that is successful and plays a key role in urbanization globally.

In the world lived in, the developed nations have made significant investments in the water institutions, infrastructure, and management capacities. This kind of investment has led to improvement in public health, hence laid the foundation of steady economic growth and at the same time stable social conditions. Providing clean water services are quite costly. The massive infrastructure investments in water purification, piping, waste water treatment and pumps are necessary.

The general revenues collected from tap water are not able to cover all these costs. Developing countries have difficulties in recovering fall and costs far short of short recover.

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In addition, water systems in this country are particularly inefficient. Loss of water due to theft and leakage ranges between 40 to 60 percent in the developing nations as compared to 10 and 20 percent in the developed nations because they are far more efficient managed. For stability and economic progress to be achieved, it is very important for the developing countries to address this issue of water sanitation and provision by making sure that they invest more in infrastructure, establish regulatory frameworks, solid operational principles and fine tuning economic instruments.

Fallen short, unable to, or unwilling to finance these investments, the government in the developing nations has been unable to meet the public need for affordable and adequate water and sanitation services. However, public water privatization has worked as a possible alternative. Water privatization proponents do believe that the challenges can be lucrative business opportunities.

This notion proved spurred and popular water works privatization projects in both the developed and developing nations. Although the projects of the public-private involvement do differ, fundamental goals of privatization efforts are usually standard across the board. These theme include the improvement of water and sanitation services to every citizen, meeting or exceeding the water quality standards and expanding coverage area set forth by the World Health Organization.

On eof the main difference between the private and public water project sectors is the profit motives, which in most cases; do conflict with the idea of equal distribution of this basic necessity of all citizens. The end results of water privatization projects have varied. In other incidences, privatization has increased the rates of deteriorating services and corruption; and loss local operational control.In developing countries, women often have responsibilities that are water dependent, such as collecting water and tending to the sick Sewpaul, 45 As unpolluted water supplies diminish, these tasks become increasingly difficult to accomplish.

Women face greater threats to their security as they are forced to walk farther, occasionally into dangerous areas, and lose several hours of their day, potentially reducing the household income and resulting in missed economic opportunities Sewpaul, 46 To treat, ration, and dispense water, states may resort to privatized water management systems.

Privatization, however, has routinely resulted in unaffordability and inaccessibility as well as poor service and water quality. This tendency has resulted in the question that this thesis will resolve, which is whether privatized water management is a violation of human rights. To answer this question, this thesis will analyze the impact privatization has on a number of groups, particularly women. Skip to main content.

UC Santa Barbara. Email Facebook Twitter. Abstract In developing countries, women often have responsibilities that are water dependent, such as collecting water and tending to the sick Sewpaul, 45 As unpolluted water supplies diminish, these tasks become increasingly difficult to accomplish. Thumbnails Document Outline Attachments. Highlight all Match case. Whole words. Toggle Sidebar. Zoom Out. More Information Less Information. Enter the password to open this PDF file:. Cancel OK.

File name:. File size:. Title: .Although water is all around, very little is drinkable. Six billion people live on earth and 1. California has only 20 years of water supply left.

Ironically, even the wettest place on earth, Cherrapunji, India, has often water shortages. After years of millions of people dying of thirst and disease, a corporate movement to find a solution to the water crisis has now swept the world.

Water, a fleeting resource vital to every.

Water Privatization

Bottled water is the other form of privatizing water and is a profit driven business worldwide. It is important to include bottled water in the same discussion as municipal water sources mainly in looking at how developed countries are handling water issues.

For Europe and the United States, both have relatively safe water and the infrastructure, which provides water to all citizens compared to developing countries.

water privatization thesis

The problem however for developed countries is the bottled water industry and the. Disinvestment - In order to make the process of globalization smooth, privatization and liberalization policies are moving along as well. Under the privatization scheme, most of the public sector undertaking have been are being sold to private sector. Dismantling of the industrial Licensing Regime:At present, only six industries are under compulsory licensing mainly; on accounts of environmental safety measures.

There tend to be two main viewpoints when considering genetically modified organisms GMOs. Between the two groups, there are major differences of opinion, scientific studies are interpreted with distinct disparities, and the proposed long-term benefits are argued intensely.

Due to the varied sentiments regarding GMOs, governments and consumers have been unable to agree on laws to. Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong init became apparent to many of China's leaders that economic reform was necessary.

During his tenure as China's premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, which had had as their base ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produced by Hua Guofeng.

Is it necessary to institute some form of desirable control or regulation over the Internet? If so, will an inordinate amount of public freedom be sacrificed in the process? These questions will be addressed, along with analyzing present policy and possible directions for future legislation. The Internet Defined. As non-metro economies deteriorated and prison populations exploded over the last two decades, rural America and prison facilities have developed a symbiotic relationship.

Water Privatization

This paper investigates whether prison-based. Home Page Water Privatization: Private vs. Water Privatization: Private vs. Public Words 4 Pages. Water has become a very controversial issue in the United States and around the world. As populations increase and resources decrease, the way we use our resources and keep populations safe become more and more important.

Throughout the world there are nearly 1. People must have water to survive, but it must be clean and safe to consume.Your generous donations are advancing the Community Rights and Rights of Nature movements! Our work is possible because of your support. CELDF has helped communities to protect themselves from environmental, democratic, and other harms by securing rights since Last Name. Company Name. Address 2. Subscribe to our newsletter. Below learn about the harms from privatizing our water, how communities are organizing to stop them, and what you can do in your own community.

Water is life. By turning ground and surface water into a private commodity, corporations are profiting as they deplete water sources and the wildlife that depend on it, and in some cases, contaminate aquifers and wells.

In other cases, municipal water is being privatized, leaving communities to suffer with mismanagement, higher costs and poor water quality. People, communities, and nature have a right to water. While there is plenty of water, only 2. The rest is locked in ice. State environmental agencies are issuing permits to corporations to extract millions of gallons of water a day from local aquifers to bottle and sell. This is literally drying up our communities, as the majority of bottled water in the U.

That same year, it extracted another 51 million gallons from groundwater in the area. A deal struck between Cadiz Inc. So much water has been sucked out of the Colorado River and the Rio Grande, that neither river reaches the sea anymore. The business of bottling water is a uniquely extractive and deceptive industry. Fact after fact can be lined up to tear a hole in the reasoning behind bottled water, yet it continues.

Bottled water companies are thriving — despite piles of damning evidence of the harm they cause. Bottled water uses about 2, times more energy to produce than tap water. Most bottled water is extracted from groundwater, which is typically less vulnerable to contamination than surface water. When contaminants are bottled and sold, adverse health effects range from gastrointestinal illness, reproductive problems and neurological disorders, [23] or even death.

However, 35 million Americans receive their water from privately owned, for-profit utilities — the two biggest of which are American Water and United Water. Water privatization leads to job losses.

In Indianapolis, between andnearly workers were laid off after privatization, putting water quality and service at risk from understaffing. Public health is routinely compromised for higher profits. In regard to municipal water systems, corporations often seek to woo municipalities to hand over their water or sewer systems in a long-term contract.

Once signed, privatization is difficult to reverse. If a company fails to live up to its end of the deal, proving a breach of contract is a costly and complicated process. Communities have won victories over harmful water privatization and are pursuing more with the help of CELDF.

These rights-based laws prohibit corporate water withdrawals, remove the rights of water corporations when they come into conflict with community rights, and assert the right of the community and its residents to local self-governance. Both communities organized special Town Meetings and passed the ordinances with broad support. If you or your community is threatened by water privatization, contact CELDF and learn how to take action. Or if your community is trying to stop a bottled water company or a corporate take-over of municipal water systems, CELDF can help.For a long time, ethics has been seen as the study of what comprises good and bad conduct which includes the values that influence the conduct.

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Generally, contemporary culture has given humans unprecedented liberty and prosperity which has necessitated the growth of the concept of ethics. Business ethics on the other hand has existed in the form of reflection on the ethical dimensions of business exchanges and institutions whereby the concept has been understood in two distinctive ways, where one group views it from the background of philosophy while the other group views it from the background of business community Brenkert and Beauchamp 3.

Global Societies Journal

These two approaches are not exclusive, but the philosophical approach appears to be the broader of the two.

In all cases, it becomes important to appreciate the fact that moral problems and the process of analyzing them invites different forms of useful analysis. Water forms an essential commodity that ensures continuity of life, though for a long time no systematic way has been elaborated in appreciating its value Brown and Schmidt 3.

For long, people have regarded water as a renewable commodity that has potential to develop without limit. With the larger society utilizing water in different ways such as irrigation, energy and burgeoning urban centers, the reality is now clearer that like just other renewable commodities, water is a finite resource.

water privatization thesis

However, providing answers to modern water problems requires giving answers to questions of value: how should society capture, store or distribute water; at what cost; for whom; and for how long Brown and Schmidt 4. All these questions are regarded as ethical because just like any other essential resource, determining a fair and just distribution of water has direct effects on human and nonhuman lives and also the systems that sustain them.

Borgmann argues that the driving force of the contemporary society is the aspect of commodification which is described as, that vital structure of modern society of the market which conveys a sense of moral censure Borgmann Marx looked at the various ways in which capitalism perceived the production of things such as wheat, shoes and clothing out of the hands and circumstances of the farmers, artisan and householders, stripped them of their context of skills and persons, of exchanges and uses and made them into commodities goods whose importance was reduced to their price.

Moreover, Marx became critical of how labor was being converted into something that could be purchased and sold under conditions that only favored the capitalists and made the workers beggars Borgmann ; thus, commodification became purely and totally exploitation.

The contemporary discussions continue to see the concept of commodification as contested. In such discussions, the broader agreement has remained that, certain goods such as justice should never be for sale Borgmann But other goods have continued to draw divided opinions. The above list can be complete if addition of certain public goods is made.

These public goods are; clean air and clean water, safety from crime, basic health care and public lands. The main argument in disfavor of commodification of public goods is that commodification may leads to social injustice, for instance, if education is totally commodified, the children of the poor will get no education or for them, inferior education will be enough Borgmann p.

There exist two debates that continue to dominate the lives of many people concerning the issue of water. For instance, there are arguments whether water services should remain public or go private.

water privatization thesis

Privatizing water in a country like USA has been a hard venture to undertake. The two have opposed the move to privatize water in principle and they are convinced that private companies should only get involved in narrow areas of infrastructure development but not allowed to have ownership, control or delivery of the basic service.

To them, the process or actions of commodifying water is generally wrong in terms of ethics, environmental and social Snitow, Kaufman and Fox p.

Contrary to this position, there is a divergent view which has been adopted by Peter Cook of the National Association of Water Companies who is convinced that if market principles are applicable to other products in the market, then water as a commodity cannot be exceptional.

Cook sees nothing wrong or unethical in making profits from water since the money which has been pumped into the business by the investors is used to benefit customers and provide them with services. Cook sums up his position by quoting the bible by stating that, the bible and especially the Ten Commandments have no provision that prohibits people from making profits, and utilities need to be operated as enterprises Snitow, Kaufman and Fox pp.

Indeed, most of these values are possible in public controlled enterprises but far more difficult in private owned enterprises or corporations.

The essence of water being a commodity that sustains life has drawn conflicting debates and reactions on whether it is ethical to commodify and therefore subject it to market competition principles. This particular confusion has been precipitated by the actions of United Nations to declare that water is a human right that should be accessible to everyone.

The question that arises is; are their moral consequences that arise as a result of commodifying water and hence its availability and accessibility largely become determined by market mechanisms? In most cases, ethical lapse can be categorized into three groups: deception, stealing and harming Howard and Korver There exists many variants to these but the mentioned three have come out as the most wrongdoings which people commit.

Lying has been described in many ways that include: doctor, cover up, overstate, understate, misinform, misguide or stretch the truth Howard and Korver p. The contemporary society is faced with a situation where people are facing dilemma on various ethical decisions and as a result there have been numerous methods of moral reasoning.


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